History of Toronto’s Public Lavatories Begins Underground in 1896

Posted:

Circa 1900 - Looking southwest towards Toronto's first public underground lavatory. It was on the south side of Adelaide St E, at the head of Toronto St in the St Lawrence neighbourhood. Built in 1896, the men-only lavatory was accessed through a one-storey tower located directly in the middle of Toronto St
Circa 1900 – Looking southwest towards Toronto’s first public underground lavatory. It was on the south side of Adelaide St E, at the head of Toronto St in the St Lawrence neighbourhood. Built in 1896, the men-only lavatory was accessed through a one-storey tower located directly in the middle of Toronto St (Toronto Public Library R-5935)

In the late 1800s, Toronto was in need of a public bathroom. The location of this new “public convenience,” as it was politely known, was hotly contested. It was initially going to be located on the east side of Victoria St, near King St E. However, the intersection of Toronto St, on the south side of Adelaide St E, was finally chosen. It was right across the street from the former General Post Office in the St Lawrence neighbourhood of Toronto.

Toronto’s First Underground Lavatory

Funding to construct the new loo came partially from the City of Toronto (at the request of Alderman Lamb) for $1,500, with an additional $1,000 donated by Mr James Wilson.

Architects Strickland & Symons were commissioned to design the underground bathroom. From the excavation and marble to the plumbing and fixtures, the final cost for the project was around $3,700.

The city’s first public lavatory for men opened in October 1896. It was accessed through a one-storey tower located directly in the middle of Toronto St. A curved iron staircase led to the heated washroom with one sink, four urinals and three stalls (then known as water closets). Its walls and ceiling were faced with white glazed brick, and the floors were marble. Ventilation was through an electric exhaust fan. An attendant on duty provided use of the sink, soap and a towel for 3¢ or a boot cleaning for 5¢.

Another city alderman wanted a “monument” like Alderman Lamb’s in their district.

The City’s Second & Third Public Bathrooms

February 22, 1906 - Inside the men's public lavatory once at Yonge St and Shaftesbury St. While this was Toronto's second public lavatory, it was the first above ground. Notice the seat for a shoe shine
1906 – Inside the men’s public lavatory once at Yonge St and Shaftesbury St (City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 200, Series 376, File 1, Item 105)

In 1905, an above-ground washroom was opened at the southeast corner of Yonge St and Shaftesbury St in the Summerhill and Rosedale neighbourhoods. It cost $4,000 to construct and was well patronized in its first year, with up to 300 users daily. The City Engineer’s report said that the public was so pleased with the conveniences that more should be built, not just for men but also for women.

Toronto’s third public bathroom was located underground in the centre median of Spadina Ave, on the south side of Queen St W in what we know today as the Fashion District. Completed in 1906, an iron hand railing surrounded its stairway entrance. This subterranean lavatory had an average of 733 patrons daily.

In 1908, the first women’s public washroom, or “comfort station,” was opened at Yonge and Shaftesbury. It was added to the existing men’s washroom’s west side.

How many people were using these conveniences yearly? Yonge St and Shaftesbury St had 98,000 male and 2,500 female patrons. Toronto St and Adelaide St E had 204,000 users. Spadina Ave and Queen St W had the most, with 579,000 patrons.

Just twelve years after opening, Toronto St’s underground lavatory underwent a complete renovation due to poor ventilation and aesthetic issues. It was made to look more like the Spadina and Queen washroom. The unsightly tower was replaced with an iron hand railing protecting the stairway, and the ventilation column doubled as an ornamental lamp.

The 1910s Through the 1930s

Public washrooms for both men and women continued to be constructed in high-traffic areas of Toronto and at city parks and beaches. They included these additions:

  • Underground at Queen St E and Broadview Ave on the southeast corner in the Riverside neighbourhood. It opened in 1910.
  • Underground at Parliament St and Queen St E on the southwest corner in the Moss Park area, built in 1912.
  • Keele St on the west side, north of Dundas St W in The Junction area, was completed in approximately 1916.
  • Dundas St W and Lansdowne Ave at the northwest corner in the Brockton Village neighbourhood at 1754 Dundas St W for men and 1760 Dundas St W for women. It opened in approximately 1917.
  • Danforth Ave on the south side, just west of Broadview Ave in the North Riverdale neighbourhood. It was completed in 1920.
  • King St W on the west side, just south of Queen St W in the Sunnyside area, opened in 1923.

The city now had several public lavatories scattered throughout the city, four underground. The construction of more continued on Toronto Island (Ward’s, Centre and Hanlan’s Point), Allan Gardens, Runnymede, Cherry Beach and more.

An important item to note was that in 1923, the city’s Property Committee decided that all gas stations (which was then a developing industry) be required to provide a washroom.

A Traffic Menace

Circa 1906 – Looking southeast from Queen St W and Spadina Ave in Toronto's Fashion District. The city's second underground public lavatory was accessed through a stairway in the centre median on Spadina Ave. The lamp served a dual purpose and was also a ventilation column
Circa 1906 – Looking southeast from Queen St W and Spadina Ave in Toronto’s Fashion District (City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 200, Series 376, File 6, Item 84)

By the late 1930s, there were calls to close the underground lavatories at Spadina and Queen, Toronto and Adelaide, as well as Queen and Parliament. The first two were due to their traffic menace, with one councillor calling it “The worst traffic hazard in the city.” However, it was also because of the $5,000 yearly cost to operate each one. It was also noted that there would be no savings in the first year of closure due to the cost of filling them in and paving them over.

Proposals & Closures

Since the time Toronto had its first public lavatory in 1896, there have always been proposals for more, but that was always accompanied by objections about where they would be situated. Along with other issues, there were concerns about the costs of building, maintaining and monitoring the facilities.

In 1923, there was a proposal to spend over $300,000 building 24 public washrooms in various city areas. Much of the plan came and went.

In 1969, outside of those in parks and in Nathan Phillips Square, the city’s four public bathrooms were located at Queen and Broadview, Keele and Dundas, Bay and Cumberland, as well as at Danforth and Broadview.

In 1981, the dark and dank public toilets underground at Queen and Broadview were closed as repairs alone would have cost over $100,000. By 1987 the city commissioner recommended closing the three remaining public washrooms due to expensive operating costs. Reports said that the cost-per-flush at the Danforth facilities was as much as $5.80, while Keele and Dundas was $3.20 (the cost to operate, including custodial staff, divided by the number of patrons). The third washroom was downstairs at the southeast corner of Bay and Cumberland.

By this time, there were laws in place that if the public had access to a shopping centre or an office building, there must be washroom facilities available (during operating hours), not to mention the many restaurants, coffee shops, and bars that had to have restrooms for their customers.

Artifacts & Heritage Designation

May 7, 1924 - Looking southeast toward the public lavatory on Danforth Ave, just west of Broadview Ave in the North Riverdale neighbourhood of Toronto. Completed in 1920, city architect George FW Price designed the 1½ storey brick-clad building to complement the area. The local landmark is no longer a lavatory and has been adapted for use as a school
May 7, 1924 – Looking southeast toward the public lavatory on Danforth Ave, just west of Broadview Ave in the North Riverdale neighbourhood of Toronto (City of Toronto Archives, Series 372, Sub Series 1, Item 629)

When the old public bathrooms closed, artifacts (mainly from Queen and Broadview) went to the city’s museum collection. They included two penny scales, faucets, cast iron gates, a wooden cupboard, marble stile and slabs, a door, drain cover, brackets, a sink, tiles, light fixtures, a marble and cast iron drinking fountain, a soap dispenser and signage.

The former lavatory on Danforth Ave, west of Broadview Ave, was built in 1920. City architect George FW Price designed the Period Revival style lavatory to complement the neighbourhood. The 1½ storey building is clad with reddish-brown brick and features brick, stone and wood trim. Other exterior architectural elements include brick quoins, oriel windows, canopies over the east and west end entrances and a steeply pitched gable roof, while the interior has vaulted ceilings. The local landmark at the east end of the Prince Edward Viaduct received heritage status from the city in 1984. The building has been repurposed and is home to a French language school today.

Where To Go Today?

The City of Toronto provides public washrooms at Nathan Phillips Square, Union Station, and St Lawrence Market, with facilities in public buildings and recreation centres, parks and maintained pathways. Click for a list of Toronto’s public washrooms.

If you can’t find a public washroom nearby, there are coffee shops or fast food restaurants. While in many cases you don’t need to purchase anything to use the facilities, if possible, it’s a nice gesture to buy a beverage or something small as a thank you.

Did You Know?

In 2010, the city partnered with Astral Media and unveiled its first automated pay-as-you-go public toilet on the northwest corner of Queens Quay W and Rees St in Toronto’s Waterfront area. Once a visitor pays 25¢, the door slides open and closes once they’re inside. Patrons have 20 minutes to use the high-tech toilet that features ambient background music and a sink, water, soap and hand drying station. Once the motion sensors detect, the patron has exited the lavatory, the door seals, and the self-cleaning process begins. It’s heated/air-conditioned and fully accessible. In 2012, a second automated pay washroom was installed on the south side of Lake Shore Blvd E at Northern Dancer Blvd in The Beaches area.

Toronto’s Public Lavatory Photos

Circa 1900 - Looking southwest towards Toronto's first public underground lavatory. It was on the south side of Adelaide St E, at the head of Toronto St in the St Lawrence neighbourhood. Built in 1896, the men-only lavatory was accessed through a one-storey tower located directly in the middle of Toronto St
Circa 1900 – Looking southwest towards Toronto’s first public underground lavatory. It was on the south side of Adelaide St E, at the head of Toronto St in the St Lawrence neighbourhood. Built in 1896, the men-only lavatory was accessed through a one-storey tower located directly in the middle of Toronto St (Toronto Public Library R-5935)
2020 – Looking southwest toward the intersection of Toronto St and Adelaide St E. The entrance to the city's first public underground lavatory, built in 1896, was situated right in the middle of Toronto St
2020 – Looking southwest toward the intersection of Toronto St and Adelaide St E. The entrance to the city’s first public underground lavatory, built in 1896, was situated right in the middle of Toronto St
1897 - Inside the underground public lavatory once situated in the middle of Toronto St, on the south side of Adelaide St E. The men-only washroom had four urinals, three stalls and a sink. An attendant on duty provided use of the sink, soap and a towel for 3¢ or a boot cleaning for 5¢, as noted in the sign above the sink
1897 – Inside the underground public lavatory once situated in the middle of Toronto St, on the south side of Adelaide St E. The men-only washroom had four urinals, three stalls and a sink. An attendant on duty provided use of the sink, soap and a towel for 3¢ or a boot cleaning for 5¢, as noted in the sign above the sink (City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 200, Series 376, File 1, Item 90a)
1896 - Architectural drawings by Strickland & Symons, the designers of Toronto's first public lavatory. The men-only bathroom was located underground at Toronto St and Adelaide St E in the St Lawrence neighbourhood
1896 – Architectural drawings by Strickland & Symons, the designers of Toronto’s first public lavatory. The men-only bathroom was located underground at Toronto St and Adelaide St E in the St Lawrence neighbourhood (Canadian Architect and Builder, Vol. 9, No. 9, Sept 1896, pg 143 – Canadiana)
1896 - A closer look at the architectural drawing by Strickland & Symons of the below-ground portion of Toronto's first public lavatory on Toronto St and Adelaide St E
1896 – A closer look at the architectural drawing by Strickland & Symons of the below-ground portion of Toronto’s first public lavatory on Toronto St and Adelaide St E (Canadian Architect and Builder, Vol. 9, No. 9, Sept 1896, pg 143 – Canadiana)
1912 - Looking northeast towards the renovated entrance of the public washroom once in the middle of Toronto St, on the south side of Adelaide St E. In 1908, the lavatory underwent a complete renovation. The tower entrance was replaced with an iron hand railing protecting the stairway, and the ventilation column doubled as an ornamental lamp. Notice the former General Post Office on the left and the Toronto St sign affixed to the still-existing building on the right
1912 – Looking northeast towards the renovated entrance of the public washroom once in the middle of Toronto St, on the south side of Adelaide St E. In 1908, the lavatory underwent a complete renovation. The tower entrance was replaced with an iron hand railing protecting the stairway, and the ventilation column doubled as an ornamental lamp. Notice the former General Post Office on the left and the Toronto St sign affixed to the still-existing building on the right (City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1231, Item 1657)
2023 – Looking northeast towards the intersection of Adelaide St E and Toronto St in the St Lawrence neighbourhood. It was once the location of Toronto's first public lavatory, situated below street level
2023 – Looking northeast towards the intersection of Adelaide St E and Toronto St in the St Lawrence neighbourhood. It was once the location of Toronto’s first public lavatory, situated below street level
February 22, 1906 – The men's public lavatory once at the southeast corner of Yonge St and Shaftesbury St in the Summerhill and Rosedale neighbourhoods. While this was Toronto's second men's public lavatory, in 1908, the city's first women's public washroom was added to the west side of the building
February 22, 1906 – The men’s public lavatory once at the southeast corner of Yonge St and Shaftesbury St in the Summerhill and Rosedale neighbourhoods. While this was Toronto’s second men’s public lavatory, in 1908, the city’s first women’s public washroom was added to the west side of the building (City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 200, Series 376, File 1, Item 107)
February 22, 1906 - Inside the men's public lavatory once at Yonge St and Shaftesbury St. While this was Toronto's second public lavatory, it was the first above ground. Notice the seat for a shoe shine
February 22, 1906 – Inside the men’s public lavatory once at Yonge St and Shaftesbury St. While this was Toronto’s second public lavatory, it was the first above ground. Notice the seat for a shoe shine (City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 200, Series 376, File 1, Item 105)
Circa 1906 – Looking southeast from Queen St W and Spadina Ave in Toronto. The city's second underground public lavatory was accessed through a stairway in the centre median on Spadina Ave. The lamp served a dual purpose and was also a ventilation column
Circa 1906 – Looking southeast from Queen St W and Spadina Ave in Toronto. The city’s second underground public lavatory was accessed through a stairway in the centre median on Spadina Ave. The lamp served a dual purpose and was also a ventilation column (City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 200, Series 376, File 6, Item 84)
2023 – Looking southeast from Spadina Ave and Queen St W in Toronto's Fashion District. The entrance to the underground lavatory was once located in the centre of Spadina Ave. Notice the CN Tower in the distance on the left side
2023 – Looking southeast from Spadina Ave and Queen St W in Toronto’s Fashion District. The entrance to the underground lavatory was once located in the centre of Spadina Ave. Notice the CN Tower in the distance on the left side
Circa 1906 - Inside the men's public lavatory at Queen St W and Spadina Ave. Notice the wall-mounted high tank in each stall and over the urinals
Circa 1906 – Inside the men’s public lavatory at Queen St W and Spadina Ave. Notice the wall-mounted high tank in each stall and over the urinals (City of Toronto Archives, Series 376, File 5, Item 85)
Circa 1914 – Looking northeast from the entrance of the underground public lavatory located in a centre median on Spadina Ave, on the south side of Queen St W. The men's underground bathroom was opened in 1906, but by the late 1930s, there were calls to close it due to the traffic issues it was causing
Circa 1914 – Looking northeast from the entrance of the underground public lavatory located in a centre median on Spadina Ave, on the south side of Queen St W. The men’s underground bathroom was opened in 1906, but by the late 1930s, there were calls to close it due to the traffic issues it was causing (City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1488, Series 1230, Item 1368)
2023 – Looking northeast from Spadina Ave and Queen St W. The underground lavatory entrance was once located in the centre of Spadina Ave, south of Queen St W
2023 – Looking northeast from Spadina Ave and Queen St W. The underground lavatory entrance was once located in the centre of Spadina Ave, south of Queen St W
February 1914 – Looking south on Spadina Ave from Queen St W. Notice in the median to the left of the wagon, the iron hand railing protecting the entrance to the men's underground public lavatory
February 1914 – Looking south on Spadina Ave from Queen St W. Notice in the median to the left of the wagon, the iron hand railing protecting the entrance to the men’s underground public lavatory (City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1244, 7167)
2023 – Looking south from Spadina Ave and Queen St W in Toronto's Fashion District. The underground lavatory entrance was once located in the centre of Spadina Ave, south of Queen St W
2023 – Looking south from Spadina Ave and Queen St W in Toronto’s Fashion District. The underground lavatory entrance was once located in the centre of Spadina Ave, south of Queen St W
June 4, 1913 – Looking northwest towards the underground lavatory entrances from Parliament St just south of Queen St E in the Moss Park neighbourhood. Built in 1912, this was the city's third underground bathroom with facilities for both men and women
June 4, 1913 – Looking northwest towards the underground lavatory entrances from Parliament St just south of Queen St E in the Moss Park neighbourhood. Built in 1912, this was the city’s third underground bathroom with facilities for both men and women (City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1244, Item 7308)
November 20, 1914 – Looking northwest towards the public underground lavatory entrance, ventilation shaft and a horse trough from Parliament St just south of Queen St E. The building at the corner was the Home Furniture Carpet Co, built in 1907 and designed by architect Henry Simpson
November 20, 1914 – Looking northwest towards the public underground lavatory entrance, ventilation shaft and a horse trough from Parliament St just south of Queen St E. The building at the corner was the Home Furniture Carpet Co, built in 1907 and designed by architect Henry Simpson (City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1231, Item 1295)
May 15, 1914 – Looking towards the entrances of the underground public lavatories at the southeast corner of Queen St E and Broadview Ave in the Riverside neighbourhood of Toronto. The ventilation shafts on either side of the bathroom entrances are also lamps. Notice the horse trough and the Dominion Bank also once stood at the corner
May 15, 1914 – Looking towards the entrances of the underground public lavatories at the southeast corner of Queen St E and Broadview Ave in the Riverside neighbourhood of Toronto. The ventilation shafts on either side of the bathroom entrances are also lamps. Notice the horse trough and the Dominion Bank also once stood at the corner (City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1231, Item 648)
2021 – Looking southeast toward the corner of Queen St E and Broadview Ave in the Riverside neighbourhood of Toronto. The underground lavatory entrances were once alongside Broadview Ave and the former bank building
2021 – Looking southeast toward the corner of Queen St E and Broadview Ave in the Riverside neighbourhood of Toronto. The underground lavatory entrances were once alongside Broadview Ave and the former bank building
1972 - Looking towards the southeast corner of Queen St E and Broadview Ave. Notice the entrances to the public lavatory along Broadview Ave, to the right of the Toronto-Dominion Bank. These public washrooms closed in the early 1980s
1972 – Looking towards the southeast corner of Queen St E and Broadview Ave. Notice the entrances to the public lavatory along Broadview Ave, to the right of the Toronto-Dominion Bank. These public washrooms closed in the early 1980s (City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 2032, Series 841, File 25, Item 20)
2023 – Looking southeast toward the corner of Queen St E and Broadview Ave in the Riverside neighbourhood of Toronto. The underground lavatory entrances were once alongside Broadview Ave and the former bank building
2023 – Looking southeast toward the corner of Queen St E and Broadview Ave in the Riverside neighbourhood of Toronto. The underground lavatory entrances were once alongside Broadview Ave and the former bank building
August 30, 1923 – Looking northeast towards the back of the public lavatory (the building in the centre foreground) once located on King St W, on the south side of what we know today as The Queensway, in the Sunnyside area
August 30, 1923 – Looking northeast towards the back of the public lavatory (the building in the centre foreground) once located on King St W, on the south side of what we know today as The Queensway, in the Sunnyside area (City of Toronto Archives, Series 372, Sub Series 1, Item 17)
May 7, 1924 - Looking southeast toward the public lavatory on Danforth Ave, just west of Broadview Ave in the North Riverdale neighbourhood of Toronto. Completed in 1920, city architect George FW Price designed the 1½ storey brick-clad building to complement the area. The local landmark is no longer a lavatory and has been adapted for use as a school
May 7, 1924 – Looking southeast toward the public lavatory on Danforth Ave, just west of Broadview Ave in the North Riverdale neighbourhood of Toronto. Completed in 1920, city architect George FW Price designed the 1½ storey brick-clad building to complement the area. The local landmark is no longer a lavatory and has been adapted for use as a school (City of Toronto Archives, Series 372, Sub Series 1, Item 629)
2021 - Looking southwest towards the former public lavatory at 55 Danforth Ave. Built in 1920 and designed by city architect George FW Price, the building received heritage status from the city in 1984. The building has been repurposed and today is home to a French language school
2021 – Looking southwest towards the former public lavatory at 55 Danforth Ave. Built in 1920 and designed by city architect George FW Price, the building received heritage status from the city in 1984. The building has been repurposed and today is home to a French language school
March 26, 2023 - The automated pay-as-you-go public washroom on the northwest corner of Queens Quay W and Rees St in the Waterfront area of Toronto. It was installed in 2010, and the cost for use is 25¢ however, when the photo was taken, the washroom was out of service
March 26, 2023 – The automated pay-as-you-go public washroom on the northwest corner of Queens Quay W and Rees St in the Waterfront area of Toronto. It was installed in 2010, and the cost for use is 25¢ however, when the photo was taken, the washroom was out of service
March 26, 2023 - The automated pay-as-you-go public washroom is just south of the Rogers Centre and the CN Tower. It's located on the northwest corner of Queens Quay W and Rees St in Toronto's Waterfront area. When the photo was taken, the washroom was out of service
March 26, 2023 – The automated pay-as-you-go public washroom is just south of the Rogers Centre and the CN Tower. It’s located on the northwest corner of Queens Quay W and Rees St in Toronto’s Waterfront area. When the photo was taken, the washroom was out of service
February 25, 2024 - The automated pay-as-you-go public washroom on the southeast corner of Lake Shore Blvd E and Northern Dancer Blvd at Woodside Beach in the Waterfront area of Toronto. Note when the photo was taken, the washroom was out of service
February 25, 2024 – The automated pay-as-you-go public washroom on the southeast corner of Lake Shore Blvd E and Northern Dancer Blvd at Woodside Beach in the Waterfront area of Toronto. Note when the photo was taken, the washroom was out of service
December 18, 1920 – The public lavatory once at Centre Island on Toronto Island. The photo was taken the year it was constructed
December 18, 1920 – The public lavatory once at Centre Island on Toronto Island. The photo was taken the year it was constructed (City of Toronto Archives, Series 372, Sub Series 1, Item 364a)
June 23, 1925 – The public lavatory once at Ward's Island on Toronto Island. The photo was taken the year it was constructed
June 23, 1925 – The public lavatory once at Ward’s Island on Toronto Island. The photo was taken the year it was constructed (City of Toronto Archives, Series 372, Sub Series 1, Item 681)
June 18, 1926 – Inside the men's lavatory once at Ward's Island on Toronto Island
June 18, 1926 – Inside the men’s lavatory once at Ward’s Island on Toronto Island (City of Toronto Archives, Series 372, Sub Series 1, Item 694)
November 25, 1930 – The public lavatory once at Hanlan's Point on Toronto Island. The photo was taken the year it was constructed
November 25, 1930 – The public lavatory once at Hanlan’s Point on Toronto Island. The photo was taken the year it was constructed (City of Toronto Archives, Series 372, Sub Series 1, Item 960)
August 9, 1928 - The lavatory once at Allan Gardens in the Garden District of Toronto. The bathroom opened in 1928
August 9, 1928 – The lavatory once at Allan Gardens in the Garden District of Toronto. The bathroom opened in 1928 (City of Toronto Archives, Series 372, Sub Series 1, Item 851)
August 9, 1928 – Inside the lavatory once at Allan Gardens
August 9, 1928 – Inside the lavatory once at Allan Gardens (City of Toronto Archives, Series 372, Sub Series 1, Item 852)
August 12, 1935 - The bathroom at Cherry Beach/Clark Beach Park was built in 1935 and is still in use today
August 12, 1935 – The bathroom at Cherry Beach/Clark Beach Park was built in 1935 and is still in use today (City of Toronto Archives, Series 372, Sub Series 1, Item 1357)
May 11, 1936 – The lavatory once located in Runnymede Park in the St Clair Ave W and Runnymede Rd area of Toronto
May 11, 1936 – The lavatory once located in Runnymede Park in the St Clair Ave W and Runnymede Rd area of Toronto (City of Toronto Archives, Series 372, Sub Series 1, Item 1394)
1933 - The Toronto City Directory showing the addresses of Toronto's public lavatories
1933 – The Toronto City Directory showing the addresses of Toronto’s public lavatories (Toronto Public Library)
SOURCE
  • City of Toronto Heritage Register: 55 Danforth Ave
  • Ontario Heritage Trust: Prince Edward Viaduct Public Lavatory
  • City of Toronto: Fine Art & Artifact Collection
  • City of Toronto: Report of the City Engineer by the Toronto Department of Public Works (1896), pgs 3 & 82
  • City of Toronto: Report of the City Engineer by the Toronto Department of Public Works (1905), pgs 86, 87 & 136
  • The Globe Newspaper Archives: Jul 1, 1895, pg 8
  • The Globe Newspaper Archives: Apr 22, 1896, pg 6
  • The Toronto Daily Star Newspaper Archives: Jan 26, 1903, pg 1
  • The Globe Newspaper Archives: Sep 11, 1923, pg 13
  • The Globe Newspaper Archives: Sep 25, 1923, pg 14
  • The Toronto Daily Star Newspaper Archives: Jan 29, 1938, pg 30
  • The Toronto Daily Star Newspaper Archives: Feb 3, 1938, pg 1
  • The Globe and Mail Newspaper Archives: May 20, 1969, pg 5
  • The Toronto Star Newspaper Archives: Mar 20, 1983, pg F8
  • The Toronto Star Newspaper Archives: Mar 13, 1987, pg A1 & A4
  • The Globe and Mail Newspaper Archives: Sep 17, 1987, pg A20
  • Canadian Architect and Builder: Sep 1896, Volume 9, Number 9, pg 133
  • Photos: Denise Marie for TorontoJourney416
  • Vintage Photos: City of Toronto Archives, Toronto Public Library & Canadiana
  • Toronto City Directory by Might Directories Ltd 1933 courtesy of Toronto Public Library

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

Stay Connected

24,760FollowersFollow
103FollowersFollow
8,850FollowersFollow